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常文星, 袁超, 胡婵, 等. 西安市社区老年居民失能状况评估分析[J]. 中国临床医学, 2024, 31(1): 113-120. DOI: 10.12025/j.issn.1008-6358.2024.20231827
引用本文: 常文星, 袁超, 胡婵, 等. 西安市社区老年居民失能状况评估分析[J]. 中国临床医学, 2024, 31(1): 113-120. DOI: 10.12025/j.issn.1008-6358.2024.20231827
CHANG Wenxing, YUAN Chao, HU Chan, et al. Assessment of disability status of community elderly residents in Xi'an, China[J]. Chinese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2024, 31(1): 113-120. DOI: 10.12025/j.issn.1008-6358.2024.20231827
Citation: CHANG Wenxing, YUAN Chao, HU Chan, et al. Assessment of disability status of community elderly residents in Xi'an, China[J]. Chinese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2024, 31(1): 113-120. DOI: 10.12025/j.issn.1008-6358.2024.20231827

西安市社区老年居民失能状况评估分析

Assessment of disability status of community elderly residents in Xi'an, China

  • 摘要:
    目的 评估西安市社区老年居民的失能状况,并分析其影响因素。
    方法 选取2022年3月1日至2022年7月31日在西安市4家社区卫生服务中心体检的60岁以上老年居民为调查对象,开展面对面问卷调查。运用世界卫生组织残疾评定量表(WHODAS 2.0)12条简表评估纳入人群的失能情况和程度,并采用多因素logistic回归模型分析老年人不同维度失能的影响因素。
    结果 本次调查共纳入1 014人,其中失能人数为233人,失能率为22.98%。分析结果显示,年龄≥80岁、非在婚、小学以下文化程度、收入<支出、患2种及以上慢性病的人群失能率和WHODAS 2.0得分均较高(P值均<0.05)。社区老年居民的认知水平失能WHODAS 2.0得分(31.49±41.59)分显著高于身体活动水平(20.86±51.25)分,(t=5.127, P<0.01)。多因素分析结果提示,老年居民身体活动水平失能的危险因素为≥70岁(OR=1.54~8.53)、初中及以下文化程度(OR=1.87~4.50)、收入<支出(OR=1.58~2.66)和患2种及以上慢性病(OR=3.03~4.99)。认知水平失能的危险因素为≥80岁(OR=3.70~6.74)、初中及以下文化程度(OR=1.98~5.57)、收入<支出(OR=1.85~3.68)、患2种及以上慢性病(OR=2.77~3.92)。
    结论 社区老年居民的失能率随年龄增加和健康状况变差而上升,文化程度和收入水平低也是导致老年人失能的重要危险因素。老年居民认知水平失能要显著高于身体活动水平失能,因此,改善老年居民的认知水平将是今后防治老年失能的关键任务之一。

     

    Abstract:
    Objective To assess the disability status of elderly residents of Xi'an and to analyze the influencing factors.
    Methods Elderly residents aged ≥60 years old who had check-ups at community health centers in Xi'an from March 1, 2022 to July 31, 2022 were selected to conduct a face-to-face questionnaire survey. The 12 items of World Health Organization Disability Rating Scale, Version 2 (12-item WHODAS 2.0) was used to assess the status and degree of disability, and a multifactorial logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of different dimensions of disability in the elderly.
    Results A total of 1 014 people were included in the survey, of whom 233 (22.98%) were disabled. The results showed that the disability rate and WHODAS 2.0 scores were higher for those who were ≥80 years old, were not in a marriage, had less than elementary school education, had income < expenditure, and suffered from ≥2 chronic diseases (all P < 0.05). The WHODAS 2.0 score of cognitive level (31.49±41.59) was significantly higher than the physical activity level (20.86±51.25) among the elderly residents in the community (t=5.127, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that ≥70 years old (OR=1.54-8.53), less than junior high school education (OR=1.87-4.50), income < expenditure (OR=1.58-2.66), and having more than two chronic diseases (OR=3.03-4.99), were risk factors related to physical disability in the elderly; ≥80 years old (OR=3.70-6.74), less than junior high school education (OR=1.98-5.57), income < expenditure (OR=1.85-3.68), and having more than two chronic diseases (OR=2.77-3.92) were the risk factors of cognitive disability.
    Conclusions The incidence of disability among elderly residents increases with age and deteriorating health, and low literacy and income levels are also important risk factors for disability. The cognitive level of disability is significantly higher than the physical activity level, so exploring efficient ways to improve the cognitive level of elderly residents will be one of the key tasks in the future to prevent and treat elderly disability.

     

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